A grammar of the Persian language by by Sir William Jones. PDF

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For the rest of the numerals, the motivation is known; they appear to be derived from domains of conceptualization that do not immediately relate to counting. The source concepts involved are: 1. Concrete items: 'hand', 'foot', and 'person' 2. Actions: 'seize', 'spare' 3. Location: 'above' In addition, three arithmetic concepts are involved in the construction of Mamvu numerals: 20 COGNITIVE FOUNDATIONS OF GRAMMAR Table 2-1 Mamvu (Central Sudanic, Nilo-Saharan); orthography simplified (Vorbichler 1971:231-2) Numeral Meaning reli jue jeno jeto jimbu eli qode reli elf qode jue jeto.

A characteristic of numeral systems that has been pointed out by several students of the subject (Stampe 1976:598-9; Greenberg 1978c:268-9, 276) concerns the construction of numerals above ten, for instance, of the numeral '30', where the multiplicand ('10') is often treated like a noun and the multiplier ('3') like a noun modifier. Thus, Greenberg observes that the Wolof numeral nyar-i temer (two-of hundred) '200' has the same structure as the construction nyar-i nag (twoof cow) 'two cows'. There appears to be an obvious reason for this similarity: That the multiplicand is treated like a noun appears to be due to the fact that it is historically a noun and has retained some of its nominal properties, like those that are at issue here.

Numerals derived from such expressions are therefore hardly likely to have nominal properties. In Zulu, for example, the numerals '6' through '9' are derived from concrete expressions that describe the conventionalized pattern of counting by using fingers, as can be seen in table 2-5. The numeral forms in the table suggest that while the conceptual sources of '6' and '7' are nominal, those of '8' and '9' are nominalized verb phrases. Accordingly, one will expect that the former two numerals are likely to have more nominal properties than the latter two.

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A grammar of the Persian language by by Sir William Jones.

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