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By Ranko Matasović

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Af. -af. g. zaġawan "make someone hit himself". 45 Kumaxov 1971: 206. g.. e. a-t-yə... -af. "(His) friend had five geese... and he made his mother cook them, and he brought them to the lord" Cf. also źan "burn" (intransitive): ġa-źan "burn" (transitive): ġa-ġa-źan "make someone burn". Case assignment with causative verbs is typologically very unusual46. The case of the arguments in a causative construction is not determined by that verb, which is always transitive, but by the verb from which the causative verb is derived.

If the preceding example should be rendered as "it is possible to the sick man to eat the apple". 54 This correlation between (at least some) potentials and intransitives seems to be an areal feature in the Caucasus. Cp. Hewitt 2004: 181ff. for similar examples from Mingrelian, Ingush, Khinalug, and Abkhaz. ) 1957: 93. 50 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian PERSONAL AND DIRECTIONAL PREFIXES The use of directional prefixes is compulsory with many verbs for certain persons and tenses; the use of these prefixes is quite idiomatic, and it seems that each verb has its own pattern56, cf.

Give-ger. know-ger. -fight-fut. ara. -af. af. -af. -af. 54 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian "The old Narts had the custom to give the enemy the date, to send him the message that they would come to fight: "We will come to fight at that time", they used to say. " In the preceding passage, apparently, the Narts used the factual future to give the exact time when they would come to fight, while their enemies just indicated that they would come to fight, without stating exactly when. The opposition clearly seems to be in the definiteness of time reference.

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A Short Grammar of Kabardian by Ranko Matasović

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