By Baruch Elimelech
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This pioneering research of pronouns takes into consideration greater than 250 languages. It contrasts own pronouns with pronouns reminiscent of demonstratives, interrogatives, and family members and indicates that they belong to 2 particular different types. formerly undiscovered features of the 2 different types of pronouns are brought and tested intimately from a cross-linguistic and sensible viewpoint.
This quantity brings jointly papers initially awarded at a seminar sequence on Speculative Grammar, common Grammar, and Philosophical research, held on the college of Bologna in 1984. The seminars geared toward contemplating a number of features of the interaction among linguistic theories at the one hand, and theories of that means and common sense at the different.
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Extra resources for A tonal grammar of Etsakọ
42 Schwager The (standard) interpretation of a modal verb like German muss `must’ is given in (10). ґ ∀w’ ∈ H(w,t)[p(w’)] Furthermore, I assume that imperative clauses contain a covert modal element IMPMOD, which is syntactically required to license the modal information on the imperative verb. At the propositional level, IMPMOD is interpreted exactly like muss in (10). Nevertheless, IMPMOD is constrained to performative usages only. To account for this, I assume that IMPMOD (but not German muss) comes with an additional presuppositional meaning component which requires in particular that the speaker be an (epistemic) authority on the background in question.
5 According to this view, the modalized sentences denote propositions that, under particular contextual constellations, can obtain nonassertoric effects in the above deontic sense (enacting a permission or a prohibition), but also in giving advice or in expressing a wish. For the different usages of imperatives we can now draw on the well-known context dependence of modal verbs (cf. Kratzer 1978). (6) You have to be well soon! ) But, of course, we have to block imperatives from ever being used descriptively.
To sum up again: epistemic modals are comparable to future WANT insofar as the individual anchor of the modal base has – for future WANT only at an initial stage, before the modal meaning is substituted by a realistic interpretation – an epistemic modal base with its individual anchor in the speaker. The individual anchor of a deontic-bouletic and/or epistemic modal base for volitional WANT and that of a modal base of reported speech for evidential WANT are both connected to the external argument of the clause.
A tonal grammar of Etsakọ by Baruch Elimelech