Riikka Halme's A tonal grammar of Kwanyama PDF

By Riikka Halme

ISBN-10: 3896450840

ISBN-13: 9783896450845

Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in response to the legit Namibian general) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it really is spoken via way over part one million humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity comprises the audio system of different closely-related Wambo kinds in Angola. those languages were studied rather little, and the learn in their tonal structures has been fairly missed. the current booklet is the 1st cartoon of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most objective is to supply an research of the tonal procedure of this language. for this reason the learn discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical homes. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for roughly part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. that allows you to aid the reader to keep on with the argumentation of the tonal research, this publication is organised in the sort of approach that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, through discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor observe different types. After that, the research is expounded to the broader context of study on Guthrie's workforce R languages, particularly the Wambo languages. eventually, the reader unearths nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.

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4. Thematic verbs I argue that the A pattern in Table 3 is properly characterised by the postulation of a strong verb-attracting feature in Infi, which causes all verbs, including lexical verbs, to vacate their base positions prior to Spell-Out. Option B, on the other hand, instantiates a system with a weak V-feature in Infi: finite main verbs move covertly (while auxiliaries of course continue to undergo overt movement; cf. 3). The diachronic development of English verb placement thus witnesses a weakening of Infl's V-feature; in the acquisitional sequence of French, by contrast, this feature starts out as weak (plausibly the initial setting of this feature) and strengthens in the course of time.

This includes observing how speakers orient to the syntax that is used by their interlocutors, borrowing the methods used in conversation analysis. I hope to have shown that in the case of never this allows us to recognise a hitherto neglected yet important method of expressing negation in English negationfroman interactional perspective 49 English, which involves the interlocutor in relating the negative form to the linguistic and nonlinguistic context in which it occurs, in order to determine the extent of its temporal reference.

See ... and he blamed everything onto me... so I told him what happened and when he asked Wendy... Wendy said that she never ... and they all agreed with her see. Note that Jacky' s use of never requires the addressee to refer back to the previous clause in order to fix its time reference, like Nobby's you never in (6) (later (17)). If never does function as a way of securing the involvement of the addressee, we would expect it to occur in conversational contexts where addressee-involvement is particularly important.

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A tonal grammar of Kwanyama by Riikka Halme

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