By Riikka Halme
Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in response to the legitimate Namibian normal) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken by way of way over part one million humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity contains the audio system of alternative closely-related Wambo kinds in Angola. those languages were studied quite little, and the research in their tonal platforms has been fairly missed. the current ebook is the 1st comic strip of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most target is to supply an research of the tonal approach of this language. consequently the examine discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical houses. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for approximately part a 12 months and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are principles that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. that allows you to aid the reader to keep on with the argumentation of the tonal research, this ebook is organised in this kind of method that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, by means of discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor note different types. After that, the learn is expounded to the broader context of study on Guthrie's crew R languages, specifically the Wambo languages. eventually, the reader unearths nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.
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Additional info for A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies)
2. The approaches to the lexicon contrasted Many of the differences between the word-based and morpheme-based approaches can be brought out by comparing their treatments of words like sanity. One crucial point on which the two approaches agree is that the fact that -ity is unproductive 44 Redundancy in the lexicon means that sanity is more difficult to learn than redness. The means of expressing this increased difficulty in the two models have rather different implications, however. The fact that -ity is unproductive means that a morpheme-based theory must flag stems that are capable of taking -ity with some diacritic like +ITY; compare (21) above.
4 . The word-based model This section will discuss the basic characteristics of the word-based model. The discussion will concentrate on notions that are common to all versions of the model, but details will be presented where necessary in terms of the specific framework of LRM. 1 sketches out the basic mechanics of the proposal, including the operation of the pattern-matching evaluation metric. 2 gives a more detailed comparison of the morpheme-based and word-based models, discussing additional conceptual arguments in favor of the word-based model.
This predicament, however, is an artifact of the morpheme-based model and its prediction that complex words cannot have idiosyncratic properties. The word-based model does not have to resort to ad hoc devices to describe the difference between horned and * fisted. The unacceptability of * fisted demonstrates that the suffixation of -ed to nouns is not productive, that each example of its application must be learned independently. This means that the lexical entry /horned/ contains some independent information, the amount depending on the index of regularity of the denominal -ed rule (33).
A Tonal Grammar of Kwanyama (Namibian African studies) by Riikka Halme