By R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald
The stories during this quantity recommend that each language has an adjective category, yet those range in personality and in measurement. In its grammatical houses, an adjective type might beas just like nouns, or to verbs, or to either, or to neither.ze. while in a few languages the adjective classification is big and will be freely additional to, in others it truly is small and closed. with only a dozen or so contributors. The publication will curiosity students and complex scholars of language typology and of the syntax and semantics of adjectives.
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Extra resources for Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology)
And there are 1 Adjective Classes in Typological Perspective 15 some languages whose adjectives have neither of these functions, being confined to a modifying role within an NP—see §7. The second parameter of grammatical variation is rather different. Members of very nearly all adjective classes—whether of type I or type II—may in some way modify a noun within an NP. In some languages this involves just apposition of adjective and noun, in others a relative clause (or similar) marker maybe required.
I will mention just three examples of this. (i) English. Only nouns may take a plural suffix; only verbs may take tense-aspect suffixes; only adjectives may take comparative and superlative marking, shown either by affixes (-er, -esf) or by pre-modifiers (more, most). An adjective cannot occur as head of an NP4 (while a noun can), nor as predicate (while a verb can). 4 There are a limited number of adjectives which are an exception to this statement, particularly COLOUR terms; for example, / like a good full-bodied red (sc.
A comprehensive study of the syntactic possibilities open to adjectives in English will be found in Ferris (1993). Adjectives vary widely in their grammatical properties when compared to those of nouns and verbs. ). ). There are a number of languages in which adjectives combine these possibilities, inflecting like nouns within an NP and like verbs when functioning as predicate. In a further set of languages, adjectives share no morphological properties with nouns or with verbs. Just as in most languages it is an easy matter to give criteria for distinguishing nouns from verbs, so in many languages it is an easy matter to distinguish adjectives as a separate word class.
Adjective Classes: A Cross-Linguistic Typology (Explorations in Linguistic Typology) by R. M. W. Dixon, Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald