By Yair Wiseman, Song Jiang
Publish yr note: First released September 30 2009
As any software working on a working laptop or computer uses the working process, the capability impression of bettering parts akin to reminiscence administration, procedure scheduling, dossier platforms, and equipment drivers is large. Advanced working platforms and Kernel functions: suggestions and Technologies discusses non-distributed working platforms that profit researchers, academicians, and practitioners aspiring to delve into this topic zone and examine extra in this very important box of analysis.
This cutting edge book comprises an outline of topical concerns, tools, and developments within the box of one-processor working structures.
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Additional resources for Advanced Operating Systems and Kernel Applications: Techniques and Technologies
Device drivers and other extensions have become increasingly prevalent in commodity systems such as Linux (where they are called modules) and Windows (where they are called drivers). Extensions are optional components that reside in the kernel address space and typically communicate with the kernel through published interfaces. Drivers now account for over 70% of Linux kernel code, and over 35,000 different drivers with over 112,000 versions exist on Windows XP desktops. Unfortunately, most of the programmers writing drivers work for independent hardware vendors and have significantly less experience in kernel organization and programming than the programmers that build the operating system itself.
The kernel invokes the functions exported by a driver to requests its services. Similarly, a driver invokes functions imported from the kernel to request its services. For example, Figure 1(a) shows the kernel calling into a sound-card driver to play a tone; in response, the sound driver converts the request into a sequence of I/O instructions that direct the sound card to emit a sound. In addition to processing I/O requests, drivers also handle configuration requests. Configuration requests can change both driver and device behavior for future I/O requests.
Exceptions The IA-32 architecture provides 4 protection levels of code execution. Usually they are called “rings” and numbered as 0,1,2,3 whereas 0 is the most privileged ring and 3 is the least privileged. Linux uses just ring 0 and 3. Ring 0 is used when the kernel is executed, whereas 3 is used for nonprivileged user space applications. When a process is executed and an exception occurs, the ring is switched from 3 to 0. One of the consequences of this switch is changing of the stack. The process’ user space stack is replaced by the process’ kernel mode stack while the CPU pushes several registers to the new stack.
Advanced Operating Systems and Kernel Applications: Techniques and Technologies by Yair Wiseman, Song Jiang