Download PDF by M. A. K. Halliday: An Introduction to Functional Grammar

By M. A. K. Halliday

ISBN-10: 0340574917

ISBN-13: 9780340574911

ISBN-10: 7560019730

ISBN-13: 9787560019734

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There is actually a small class of verbs consisting of only two members, namely ‘to appear’ and keːḷu ‘to hear’, which takes undergoers of the above two types as its two arguments. Examples: (27) naːnu I-nom ‘I saw him’ avanannu him-acc kaṇḍe saw Notice that the effect of the event upon the first argument (in the nominative) is produced by its own initiative, whereas the one upon the second argument (in the accusative) has been produced by the initiative of the first argument. However, even in the former case, the actual event (of seeing) is not being regarded as a volitional activity.

3 Initial and non-initial subjects The attempts of Relational Grammarians (Perlmutter 1978, Perlmutter and Postal 1984) to provide a somewhat different type of explanation for the above-mentioned situation has also been unsuccessful because they too have failed to recognize the connection between the extension of the groupings (accusative or ergative) to cover all intransitive verbs on the one hand and the combining together of the representations of semantic and pragmatic relations on the other.

If we regard these accusative, ergative and split systems as representing different ways in which languages combine together the representations of semantic and pragmatic relations, as I have suggested above, then the fact that the use of such groupings are extended to the sphere of controlling syntactic processes only in some of these languages can be explained as resulting from the fact that the languages concerned show different degrees of grammaticalization. That is, in those languages in which there is the greatest degree of grammaticalization, the grouping would be controlling the syntactic processes as well, whereas in others, it would have its influence upon certain morphological processes only.

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An Introduction to Functional Grammar by M. A. K. Halliday

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