By W. Field
Альбом архитектурной графики 1922 года.
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Additional resources for Architectural Drawing
TUBE STRUCTURES The tallest buildings are most often designed as tube structures. In this system stabilizing elements are located at the perimeter of the structure, leaving the layout of the interior of the building virtually unrestricted by considerations of lateral stability. Either braced frame or rigid frame elements, constructed from either steel or concrete, may be used. Simple tube structures and their variations are generally used for buildings approximately 50 to 55 stories or greater in height.
When building in steel, the welded joints required in this system may be more costly to construct, although construction systems have been developed that allow the off-site fabrication of these joints, thus minimizing this disadvantage. When built in steel, these structures also rely on more easily constructed bolted connections. The diagonal braces that are an integral part of this system often have a significant impact on the appearance of the building facade. The performance of rigid frame tube structures may be enhanced with the addition of belt trusses located at the perimeter of the structure.
SIZING THE STRUCTURAL SYSTEM WOOD DECKING 55 ALLEN_(047-106)Sizing_3rdpas 6/1/01 2:42 PM Page 56 (Black plate) WOOD FLOOR JOISTS ACTUAL SIZES OF FLOOR JOISTS Nominal Size Actual Size 2ϫ6 2ϫ8 2 ϫ 10 2 ϫ 12 11⁄2" ϫ 51⁄2" 11⁄2" ϫ 71⁄4" 11⁄2" ϫ 91⁄4" 11⁄2" ϫ 111⁄4" (38 ϫ 140 mm) (38 ϫ184 mm) (38 ϫ 235 mm) (38 ϫ 286 mm) TOTAL FINISHED FLOOR THICKNESS To estimate total finished floor thickness, add 2 in. (50 mm) to actual joist size for finish ceiling, subflooring, and finish flooring. BEAMS SUPPORTING FLOOR FRAMING Wood Beams For sizing wood beams, see the chart on page 61.
Architectural Drawing by W. Field